Elucidating isoniazid resistance using molecular

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Antibiotic resistance tests: Bacteria are streaked on dishes with white antibiotic impregnated disks.

Clear rings, such as those on the left, show that bacteria have not grown—indicating that the bacteria are not resistant.

All classes of microbes develop resistance: fungi develop antifungal resistance, viruses develop antiviral resistance, protozoa develop antiprotozoal resistance, and bacteria develop antibiotic resistance.A genome-wide approach was applied to 127 isolates to identify polymorphisms associated with minimum inhibitory concentrations for first-line anti-tuberculosis drugs.In addition, the effect of identified candidate mutations on protein stability and interactions was assessed quantitatively with well-established computational methods. Further, a strong direct correlation was observed between the minimum inhibitory concentration values and the distance of the mutated residues in the three-dimensional structures of Using the TDR resource, we demonstrate the usefulness of whole genome association and convergent evolution approaches to detect known and potentially novel mutations associated with drug resistance.Moreover, the availability of reliable and timely methods for the detection of drug-resistant TB strains has been inadequate as growth-based methods such as phenotypic drug susceptibility testing (DST) take weeks to months to complete and require laboratory infrastructure that is not widely available in countries with a high burden of TB.which have vastly simplified and increased the speed of diagnosing drug-resistant TB, appear to suffer from variable sensitivity and specificity depending on the geographic region of the world in which they are employed.

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