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The modern history of the city began with the arrival of a First Fleet of British ships in 1788 and the foundation of a penal colony by Great Britain.
From 1788 to 1900 Sydney was the capital of the British colony of New South Wales. In 1900, Sydney became a state capital, when New South Wales voted to join the Australian Federation.
As areas of central Australia shifted from wetlands to the deserts of today, Aboriginal peoples devised new methods to thrive in their environment.
“The invention and dispersion of the tula – a small multi-purpose cutting tool – is a prime example of the innovations pioneered by Aboriginal peoples as a result of increased drought conditions,” said Poll.
Sydney today is Australia's largest city and a major international capital of culture and finance.
The city has played host to many international events, including the 2000 Summer Olympics.
Near Penrith, a far western suburb of Sydney, numerous Aboriginal stone tools were found in Cranebrook Terraces gravel sediments having dates of 45,000 to 50,000 years BP.
Smallpox and land acquisition by colonists decimated the Cammeraygals.
The principal language groups were Darug, Guringai, and Dharawal.
The earliest Europeans to visit the area noted that the indigenous people were conducting activities such as camping and fishing, using trees for bark and food, collecting shells, and cooking fish.
“There’s very useful information embodied in these tools that really resonates with much of our current ecological thinking around sustainability and the use of resources in specific climates.” Poll’s talk marks the official launch event of the Macleay Museum’s newest exhibition, Written in Stone, which opens today and runs until 1 August 2016.
The exhibition celebrates the pivotal importance of stone to Aboriginal culture and identity, as a long-preserved marker of oral tradition.